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Windows DHCP Interview Questions and Answers !


>What is dhcp ?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers (i.e., a scope) configured for a given network.


>What is the dhcp process for client machine?
1. A user turns on a computer with a DHCP client.
2. The client computer sends a broadcast request (called a DISCOVER or DHCPDISCOVER), looking for a DHCP server to answer.
3. The router directs the DISCOVER packet to the correct DHCP server.
4. The server receives the DISCOVER packet. Based on availability and usage policies set on the server, the server determines an appropriate address (if any) to give to the client. The server then temporarily reserves that address for the client and sends back to the client an OFFER (or DHCPOFFER) packet, with that address information. The server also configures the client's DNS servers, WINS servers, NTP servers, and sometimes other services as well.
5. The client sends a REQUEST (or DHCPREQUEST) packet, letting the server know that it intends to use the address.
6. The server sends an ACK (or DHCPACK) packet, confirming that the client has a been given a lease on the address for a server-specified period of time.


>What is dhcp scope ?
DHCP scopes are used to define ranges of addresses from which a DHCP server can assign IP addresses to clients.

>Types of scopes in windows dhcp ?
Normal Scope - Allows A, B and C Class IP address ranges to be specified including subnet masks, exclusions and reservations. Each normal scope defined must exist within its own subnet.

Multicast Scope - Used to assign IP address ranges for Class D networks. Multicast scopes do not have subnet masks, reservation or other TCP/IP options.

Multicast scope address ranges require that a Time To Live (TTL) value be specified (essentially the number of routers a packet can pass through on the way to its destination).

Superscope - Essentially a collection of scopes grouped together such that they can be enabled and disabled as a single entity.

>What is Authorizing DHCP Servers in Active Directory ?
If a DHCP server is to operate within an Active Directory domain (and is not running on a domain controller) it must first be authorized.
This can be achieved either as part of the DHCP Server role installation, or subsequently using either DHCP console or at the command prompt using the netsh tool.
If the DHCP server was not authorized during installation, invoke the DHCP console (Start -> All Programs -> Administrative Tools -> DHCP),
right click on the DHCP to be authorized and select Authorize. To achieve the same result from the command prompt, enter the following command:
netsh dhcp server serverID initiate auth
In the above command syntax, serverID is replaced by the IP address or full UNC name of system on which the DHCP server is installed.

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